The administration of justice in the Republic of Poland is implemented by the Supreme Court, the common courts, administrative courts and military courts. The common courts in Poland are district courts ("rejon"), provincial courts ("okreg") and the courts of appeal. They are competent to hear criminal law cases, civil law cases, family and custody law cases, labour law cases and social insurance cases. All court proceedings should have at least two stages. Judges are appointed for an indefinite period by the President of the Republic on the motion of the National Council of the Judiciary and are not removable. The military courts are the military unit courts and the military provincial courts. They have judiciary control within the Polish Army in criminal cases and other cases subscribed to them by relevant statutes.
The Supreme Court is the highest central judicial organ in the Republic of Poland. It exercises supervision over common and military courts regarding judgements and also performs other activities specified in the Constitution and the statutes. The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal.
The Chief Administrative Court has jurisdiction over cases of administrative justice. This court operates through 10 delegated centres of the same Court. The Chief Administrative Court and other administrative courts exercise, to the extent specified by statute, control over the performance of public/governmental administration and settle jurisdictional disputes between units of local self-government and units of government administration.
Legal classification. All criminal offenses are classified into felonies, misdemeanors, and transgressions.
Felonies include violent crimes, such as homicide, aggravated forcible rape, and robbery. Since a felony is an intentional act, the intent (dolus) must be proven in order to be found guilty of a felony. Most felony crimes are contained in chapter 19 of the Penal Code, which protects the fundamental political and economic interests of the State.
Misdemeanor offenses include theft, fraud, embezzlement, burglary, assault, unintentional homicide, bigamy, incest, and breach of a state secret.
Transgressions constitute a separate category of punishable acts. They include violations of administrative regulations and minor criminal violations, such as petty theft. Transgressions are often handled by quasi-judicial boards affiliated with branches of local self-government. However, transgressions may also be handled by the police. Police will often issue a "ticket" for a transgression which requires the offender to pay a fixed penalty.